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Andrea Valdenebro Phänomen und Paradigma Seite

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Exercise 01_ Phenomenon, Paradigm, Digital

PHENOMENON

A phenomenon, can be an occurrence, circumstance, or fact that is perceptible by the senses. It can be described also as an unusual, significant, or unaccountable fact or occurrence; a marvel; it can be also related to a remarkable or outstanding person; a paragon. It is also a natural fact or event that is seen or happens regularly or frequently, for example: Magnetic attraction is an interesting phenomenon; it can aslo be used as very unusual; "remarkable a phenomenal amount of money."

Studying in depth the definition of phenomenon, we can therefore remark different approaches that can be given to the word, for example, when referring to a physical process: a sustained phenomenon or one marked by gradual changes through a series of states; "events now in process"; "the process of calcification begins later for boys than for girls". On the other hand when we talk about natural phenomenon we clearly refer to all phenomena that are not artificial. It can aslo be found in the following ways: levitation - the phenomenon of a person or thing rising into the air by apparently supernatural means. metempsychosis, rebirth - after death the soul begins a new cycle of existence in another human body. consequence, effect, result, upshot, outcome, event, issue - a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon; "the magnetic effect was greater when the rod was lengthwise"; "his decision had depressing consequences for business"; "he acted very wise after the event". fortune, hazard, luck, chance - an unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that causes an event to result one way rather than another; "bad luck caused his downfall"; "we ran into each other by pure chance". fortune, luck - an unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that leads to a favorable outcome; "it was my good luck to be there"; "they say luck is a lady"; "it was as if fortune guided his hand". pulsation - a periodically recurring phenomenon that alternately increases and decreases some quantity.

In philosophy the word phenomenon refers to the object of perception, experience, etc. In the philosophy of Kant its an object as it is perceived by the senses, as opposed to a noumenon, i.e. a thing as it appears and is interpreted in perception and reflection, as distinguished from its real nature as a thing-in-itself.


Synonyms of Phenomenon: occurrence, happening, fact, event, incident, circumstance, wonder, sensation, spectacle, sight, exception, miracle, marvel, prodigy, rarity, nonpareil.


Phenomenon definition

PARADIGMA

In science, paradigm describes distinct concepts or thought patterns in any scientific discipline or other epistemological context. The historian of science Thomas Kuhn gave paradigm its contemporary meaning when he adopted the word to refer to the set of practices that define a scientific discipline at any particular period of time. In his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Kuhn defines a scientific paradigm as: "universally recognized scientific achievements that, for a time, provide model problems and solutions for a community of researchers", i.e.: what is to be observed and scrutinized. The kind of questions that are supposed to be asked and probed for answers in relation to this subject. How these questions are to be structured. How the results of scientific investigations should be interpreted.

Alternatively, the Oxford English Dictionary defines paradigm as "a pattern or model, an exemplar." Thus an additional component of Kuhn's definition of paradigm is: how is an experiment to be conducted, and what equipment is available to conduct the experiment.

The definition of paradigma in the dictionary of literary terms, determins that a paradigm in the general sense, a pattern or model in which some quality or relation is illustrated in its purest form; but in the terminology of structuralism, a set of linguistic or other units that can be substituted for each other in the same position within a sequence or structure. A paradigm in this sense may be constituted by all words sharing the same grammatical function, since the substitution of one for another does not disturb the syntax of a sentence. Linguists often refer to the paradigmatic dimension of language as the ‘vertical axis’ of selection, whereas the syntagmatic dimension governing the combination of linguistic units is the ‘horizontal axis’ (see syntagm). Thus any sign has two kinds of relation to other signs: a paradigmatic relation to signs of the same class (which are absent in any given utterance), and a syntagmatic relation to signs present in the same sequence.

Thus, within normal science, the paradigm is the set of exemplary experiments that are likely to be copied or emulated. In this scientific context, the prevailing paradigm often represents a more specific way of viewing reality, or limitations on acceptable programs for future research, than the more general scientific method. A currently accepted paradigm would be the standard model of physics. The scientific method would allow for orthodox scientific investigations into phenomena which might contradict or disprove the standard model; however grant funding would be proportionately more difficult to obtain for such experiments, depending on the degree of deviation from the accepted standard model theory which the experiment would be expected to test for.

One important aspect of Kuhn's paradigms is that the paradigms are incommensurable, meaning two paradigms cannot be reconciled with each other because they cannot be subjected to the same common standard of comparison. That is, no meaningful comparison between them is possible without fundamental modification of the concepts that are an intrinsic part of the paradigms being compared. This way of looking at the concept of "paradigm" creates a paradox of sorts, since competing paradigms are in fact constantly being measured against each other.


Synonym of paradigma: Model.


Paradigma definition Paradigma wikipedia

DIGITAL

Digital describes electronic technology that generates, stores, and processes data in terms of two states: positive and non-positive. Positive is expressed or represented by the number 1 and non-positive by the number 0. Thus, data transmitted or stored with digital technology is expressed as a string of 0's and 1's. Each of these state digits is referred to as a bit (and a string of bits that a computer can address individually as a group is a byte).

Prior to digital technology, electronic transmission was limited to analog technology, which conveys data as electronic signals of varying frequency or amplitude that are added to carrier waves of a given frequency. Broadcast and phone transmission has conventionally used analog technology.

Digital technology is primarily used with new physical communications media, such as satellite and fiber optic transmission. A modem is used to convert the digital information in your computer to analog signals for your phone line and to convert analog phone signals to digital information for your computer.

Also digital can be definied as: Relating to, or resembling a digit, especially a finger. Operated or done with the fingers: a digital switch. Having digits. Expressed in discrete numerical form, especially for use by a computer or other electronic device: digital information. Relating to or being a device that can generate, record, process, receive, transmit, or display information that is represented in discrete numerical form. Relating to or being a service that provides information expressed in discrete numerical form: We subscribe to digital cable. Relating to or being a profession or activity that is performed using digital devices: a digital librarian; digital photography. Using or giving a reading in digits: a digital clock. Characterized by widespread use of computers: living in the digital age.


Synonyms of digital: analog, analogue, linear, electronics.


digital definition digital definition02

Exercise 02_ 5 Phenomenon and 1 Paradigm

Phenomenon 1

This is a reocurring phenomenon, that I can assure many people have gone through it at some point. It occurs when you are sleeping, dreaming, you are in this dream you are really enjoying, everything is going on like you would like it to be, and suddenly you wake up; you wake up, and you don't know the end of the story, so you always try to fall back to sleep, so that you can continue with that same dream, but always, it is impossible to go back to it; and those dreams are always left with no end.

Phenomenon 2

Two years ago a close familiar of mine suffered a brain leak, he was in coma for at least a month. During those days he lay on a bed, unconscious of what was going on, he was in coma and we could only go visit him twice a day. When we where visiting him, we could speak to him, he was sleeping so he could not verbally answer, even though he was still able to move some parts of his body if we told him. After a month when he woke up, he told us he didn't remmeber a thing, not even beign in coma, but there was just one thing he remembered and pointed out. During the process he reminded a smell of strong caramel that took him to his childhood, in this point he started following the caramel scent and started walking through a black tunnel that had a light at the very end; just when the smell was getting stonger and the light was brighting to its most, he was pushed away, under the shout of "not you, you are still too young" and then it is when he wakes up of the coma. The story of the tunnel is something that many people have gone through in difficult situations, I really never thought much about it, until, it happened to my father.

Phenomenon 3

My third phenomenon is a very simple one, in french it's called "deja vu", and as its own name recalls, it's the fact of having seen or lived something before. For example, last semester I was here in Innsbruck, with people I had just met; we where having a beer and suddenly someone said a phrase which was exactly something I had lived before, the same situation, with the same people, in the same place; nevertheless I had just met them.

Phenomenon 4

In my fourth phenomenon I want to talk about the own personal phenomenon of Jung a Swiss Psychiatrist. Throughout his life Jung starred in a number of very significant anomalous events that served to convince even more so, the existence of a transcendent reality. Let alone taking visionary experiences and dreams with plenty of archetypal material-one of which inspired the concept of collective unconscious, but other phenomena included within the field of the paranormal, for example, the projection bypass. In 1944 Jung suffered a myocardial infarction. As he unconsciously felt he left his physical body and ascended. "I felt as if I were up there in space. I looked away from the sphere of the Earth immersed in an intense blue light.

Phenomenon 5

My fifth phenomenon is related to my animals. It is well known that animals, specially cats have a great sense of feelings and can appreciate many different phenomenons before they occur. When I was about 1 year I was sleeping with my mother late at night, it was a really warm summer night in Spain. I was gently sleeping in my craddle when suddenly one of my cats started running around the house trying to wake up my mom. After 5 minutes my mom woke up and closed the door of her room. The cat kept meowing and scratching the door, desperatly my mother opened it and asked her what was going on, my cat started running and my mother followed, she leaned accross the window towards she was running and she saw a fire had just started on the flat below and no one had yet noticed.

Paradigma

This paradigma is really simple, it is a own personal discovery thorugh this year in Innsbruck. When I was a kid, I used to remember the real flavour of spanish fruits and vegetables, they where really intense in flavour, fresh, and really cheap. The last years in Spain i only remember fruits and vegetables to be untasty, expensive and from many other countries. I started wondering what had happened with all those nice fruits, I couldn't understand why we no longer had them. And this year, I'm in a supermarket in Innsbruck buying my groceries, I get home and I realise that all the fruits I bought are from Spain, I try them, and I'm overwhelmed with the flavour, it is exactly as I used to remember them before. They are even cheaper than in Spain. So now this is a really difficult thing for me to understand, with do they have nice Spainsh fruits here cheaper than the ones we can afford in Spain?

Exercise 03_ Architectural Design Process

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Exercise 04_ Ferraris for all & Ethics ranking by consumers

In both of these articles, there is a clear critic towards the human begins, either in the way they handle their opportunities in life, economical aspects or productivity; as well as in their way to improve some of their products. These two articles are well related to the problems we deal with nowadays…we have been given too much freedom, too much information and too little education. We have improved our ways of “living”, or so we think, by leaving out many small aspects that are truly hitting us now.

Each article utters a related idea, from a different point of view. We have been running for centuries into this society we call today, where you can get handle of everything, where the “too much” has become normal, and a place where everyone feels okay with the rhythm of life, and no one really stops to see where we are heading to. For years, we have just been standing there on our feet working for what we thought we had to, doing what we thought we ought, buying what we thought we should, and all of that leading us to a moral laxity that has crashed us directly into this point of economic crisis.

It is at this point where our moral laxity has been completely crashed into real life, where the more turns into more consequences, where our carelessness pays back and the place where the growth in every single sense simply brings problems. We have been running in this machine where there was a fake impulse growth in economy and where material progress was left aside. Today is the time to get up all these little pieces we left behind and start producing new ways and ideas of living. If it’s the time to give more information to the people, then let’s give out the right papers; why not do what they say about advising consumers before buying on how that product has been manufactured, transported and what can be the negative aspects of it. In this way people wouldn’t be so much concerned about the price, but more about the harms.

To conclude, I think these two articles mainly come out with the idea of installing a new perspective in the people’s life. A new way of thinking, other than how we are used to, that will help us all in the long term, we should encourage everyone to start thinking more in the long term effects either than the short ones. We should be more considered about the future and how to avoid situations like the ones we are living nowadays, which is totally a result of our own personal egoist benefits and achievements.


Exercise 05_ BIG DATA

Every day, we create 2.5 quintillion bytes of data – so much that 90% of that data in the world today has been created in the last two years alone. This data comes from everywhere. This data is BIG DATA.

It’s a term mainly applied to data sets whose size is bigger than what we are normal used to handle, and which our computer is capable of working with. Big data sizes are a constantly moving target, as of 2012 ranging from a few dozen terabytes to many petabytes of data in a single data set.

For the enterprise CTO, speaking of "big data" implies the need for a strategy for dealing with large quantities of data.

Big data is the abbreviation of the tendencies that improve in technology, open doors to a new perspective to understand the world and make decisions. Nowadays there’s more data, who continues to increase 50% every year. The data analysts help companies to arrange all this data they continuously create; developing a traffic web, where data flows in social networks, software and between companies. This can help in the long term to increase or decrease their sales. An investigation took into light that the economic development or Europe, just by using Big Data, demonstrated that governments could save us$149.000 millions in improving efficient operation systems.

Big Data’s idea is to go all over the world, to connect all the data from everywhere and help companies and countries. Some papers of the Worldwide Economical Forum withstand that data could turn into a new active economical way, like coins or gold.

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Exercise 06_ Light at the end of the tunnel

To start up the topic, we have to go back two years. It was March of 2010, and as we all may know, Spain was just announced to be starting up in a huge crisis period that had already started all over Europe. It was a period of incongruence, people were frightened of what was going to approach, nobody felt save at work, we were all stressed that at any point someone would point at us, and throw us away to the streets as if we were no longer valuable.The main and only character of this story is my Dad. The times of economic crisis where running and he was a young man full of energy who worked round the clock…he was the kind of person you could name “workaholic”, he was addicted to he’s work. He worked for a company that had many clients abroad, and he share his works with the chamber of exterior commerce of Spain; all of this meant that most of his working time he was flying over the world, Asia, South America, Africa…all over Europe, a nice and interesting work someone our age would have fun having, but that at a certain age it can became hard.

It was a Monday of March, and he was already organizing his trip to Argelia, he was leaving on Thursday to what looked to be a very important business issue. It was already March 2010 and things were really up tied in Spain, he had had a previous stressed week, and my brother bothering him with school issues didn’t help. Since the beginning of the week my Dad had been suffering of a headache, but we all thought it was normal because of all the stress he was going through. But not until Wednesday night it was that he really started feeling it harder… he was awaken in the middle of the night with this painful feeling just near the nape.

He woke up my mother and an ambulance was already in her way. We got to the hospital just in the verge; he was able to tell them the kind of pain he was having and where…and just then, he switched off into a Coma of four weeks.

For the rest of the family one can just imagine how those four weeks of arranged visits to the Intensive Care Unit were; were you only had half an hour to see how your Dad was peacefully sleeping whilst thousands of tubes and machines where bursting out unimaginable noises. They were hard weeks. Doctors used to say, that unlikely to what we thought, those weeks were worst for the family than for the patient; he was just sleeping, dreaming and was not suffering from pain nor he didn’t even notice all the machinery he was being plugged to. During those weeks, we started talking to him; apparently they say it’s important that you continue talking to them, because it’s also a way of communicating. After the second week we noticed that when we told him things, either tears ran down his cheeks or he moved a finger…those moments where incredible, they were full of life and they kept us thinking that the end of everything was soon and that he would completely recover of this brain leak that had left him sleeping for four weeks.

It was one of the mornings, like the usual ones at 10; we were heading to the hospital with the same idea, but wouldn’t notice until we reached there that something was different. We got there and Doctors were really happy, they didn’t want to tell us what was going on, but when we got into the I.C.U. we saw, he was wide awake, speaking few words, but wide awake. Words started coming out of our mouth we wanted to tell him everything, but he’s brain had stop the night before he had to go to Algeria, and he was only asking us that things. Incredible how human brain works, that after a pause of four weeks, he just remembers that he was about to fly the next day to Algeria, the day that all happened.

After the four weeks in Coma, the recovery was pretty hard, because he had forgotten to talk properly, walk, eat or any other basic human activity. We had to show him how to handle with everything, and show him how to start doing everything again. After two months of intense recovery and overcoming all he had done; he one day said he only remembered one small thing off all that had happened to him; listening to this, we were all ears, we wanted to know what did he remember.

He sat down, and started: “…maybe what I’m about to tell you, may sound strange for you to understand, but I’ve been thinking and this is the only that I remember. Whilst I was in Coma, I remember one day (in my dreams) I started scenting this strong caramel smell that took me back to my childhood in Seville. I hadn’t felt this scent since I had been five and the “caramel man” came to our street where I used to play with my brothers. Coming back to my dreams, I started walking towards the smell, it was pretty strong and attracting; I was strolling down like a phantom…the scent was taking control of me. Suddenly I look around and I see myself in this dark tunnel; I figure out that the smell is taking me towards a bright area at the end of it. I continue walking down that tunnel; and just when I find myself in this bright light, the smell vanishes and I’m left alone blind of the hard light. A hand stops at my back and I’m pushed over, at the same time that someone says ‘…not you, you still have plenty of things to do…’and with this I’m awaken and I realize it was at this point that I’m awaken of the Coma and my family is there with me”. One can figure out the willies and Goosebumps that arose in our bodies.

It’s been true for over the centuries, that when sometimes people are thrown into hard moments where their life’s hanging from a small line between life and death; this idea of the tunnel has been very recurring. I specially wanted to talk about this phenomenon because I never really thought much about of it, until my Dad told me he had gone through this. It is true, that we still know very little about the brain, and that the connection between mind and body is never as ambiguous as when the body is close to death; these experiences remain unexplained by science. Many studies have been taken to try to understand this source, but no one has yet come with a valuable explanation of how this phenomenon occurs; the idea of maybe having a big amount of carbon dioxide in your body, when one is about to die, may be an explanation, but still no one is sure enough to point out to it.

This phenomenon is quite difficult to explain or understand, this is maybe why we can still call it phenomenon and why it becomes so mystical, joyful, and a whole new experience. It is also true, and we should take into account that little can be known from the brain, since whilst alive it’s difficult to study it, either than the normal psychological way, but when dead connections are lost, and it remains as a dead muscle. We should also bear in mind that many brain levels may be altered in consciousness near the end of life. Therefore we can say that consciousness is the biggest enigma in the brain body connection. The brain carries out complex activities to connect and correlate our consciousness, it also makes us aware of our surroundings and experiences in life apart from our neural connections and interactions. This takes us to the fact that humans may be more than just a collection of cells and neural processes that we have a soul and that maybe our consciousness (at some points) may be diverse from our body.

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